En fredspolitik för EU

2010-12-03

De stora samhällshoten har förändrats över tid, men politiken som ska möta hoten håller inte jämna steg. En ny skrift från Cogito gör upp med myten om EU som en fredsorganisation och konfronterar den militärt inriktade säkerhetspolitiken med ett brett säkerhetsbegrepp som inkluderar civila dimensioner och mänsklig säkerhet.
- EU satsar varje år enorma summor på att öka den militära kapaciteten, men det säkerhetsbegrepp som ligger till grund för denna politik är inte förankrad i dagens hotbilder. Samhällsutmaningarna är i dag inte i första hand territoriella; terrorister opererar ofta inom länder, och klimatförändringen, failed states, internet-hacking och korruption – inget av dessa hot kan förebyggas med militära medel. Men EU väljer att kraftigt förstärka de militära satsningarna på bekostnad av de civila, säger bokens författare Jan Öberg.

EU:s militära utgifter ökar kontinuerligt och uppgick 2009 till 289 miljarder kronor. Samtidigt innebär det allt närmare samarbetet med Nato liksom Lissabonfördragets krav på medlemsstaternas förbättring av den militära kapaciteten, en ytterligare förstärkning av den militära trenden. Jan Öberg argumenterar för att detta är fel väg att gå.

- Militären ska inte upphöra att existera, men den ska i högre utsträckning fungera som ett verktyg tillsammans med andra i försvarspolitikens verktygslåda. Fokus bör förflyttas mot mänsklig säkerhet och civila metoder, det behövs stora satsningar på konfliktförståelse, tidig konflikthantering och våldsförebyggande. Helt avgörande är ett nytt sätt att se på säkerhet, säger Jan Öberg.

Konkreta förslag som lyfts fram i boken är bland annat: upprätta EU:s första fredsakademi, ge medel till en omfattande expansion av The European Peace University (EPU) i Österrike och förverkliga Europaparlamentets förslag till en civil fredskår.

- Starka politiska krafter vill utveckla EU till en militär supermakt, men givet storleken på EU:s militära utgifter i jämförelse med USA:s är sådana planer helt orealistiska. Däremot finns redan ett antal mekanismer som med lämpliga kompletteringar skulle kunna göra EU till en ’mjuk stormakt’ för exempelvis civil konfliktlösning och icke-militärt stöd till utsatta folk, säger Per Gahrton, ordförande för Cogito och författare till rapportens förord.

Ladda ner En fredspolitik för EU här

En fredspolitik för EU
Av Jan Öberg
Cogito och TFF 2010, 103 sidor
ISBN: 978-91-979153-1-1

Jan Öberg
är docent i sociologi och fredsforskare. Fram till 1989 var han chef för Lunds universitets fredsforskningsinstitut, LUPRI, och har bland annat varit generalsekreterare för den danska Fredsfonden och under många år medlem av danska regeringens Sikkerheds- och Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg. Han är medgrundare till Transnationella stiftelsen för freds- och framtidsforskning , TFF.

Cogito ger ut En fredspolitik för EU i samarbetemed TFF.

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